Eru is transcendent, and completely outside of and beyond the world. He first created a group of angelic beings, called in Elvish the “Ainur,” and these holy spirits were co-actors in the creation of Arda through a sacred music and chanting called the “Music of the Ainur.” He is also known as “the all-powerful.” Eru is an essential part of the novels of The Silmarillion but is not specified by name in Tolkien’s most popular productions, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings (he is alluded to as “the One” in the part of Lotr’s Appendix A that addresses of the ruin of Númenor). Eru solely can create self-governing life or existence by giving it the Flame. Giving the spark of life them like an electrical line current flowing through them causing purpose and reason to come to existence. Elves and Men were produced by Eru directly, without referring to the Ainur, and they are consequently called “Children of Ilúvatar” (Eruhini). Aulë created the Dwarves by the belated blessing of Ilúvatar, though they would be second to the Children of Ilúvatar. Eru also formed ents at the request of Yavanna, who contemplated that Dwarves would need to fell trees. Melkor instilled some semblance of free will into his mockeries of Eru Ilúvatar’s creations (Orcs and Trolls). The primary things that Ilúvatar created were the Ainur (from his thoughts). He then bade the Ainur sing to him; this was called the Ainulindalë, or the musicology of the Ainur. Melkor created a discord to the music, and Iluvatar scored three themes to the Ainulindale, which talked about the fate of Arda. The next action he made was Eä, the “World and All That Is”, and Eä existed in the Void (Melkor was drawn to the Void, and so at the beginning of Arda, he lay in the Void or the Outside as it was sometimes called). He later gave the Ainur a choice to go into Eä and fashion it as they will. The most powerful Ainur who chose to do so were called the Valar, and they controlled the shaping of the Arda. They could not make life, however, as Aulë proves, who was ready to give the particular shape to the Dwarves while consciousness has been given to them through Eru. The Valar continued accompanied by the Maiar, the lesser Ainur. The elves and men, nevertheless, came directly from Ilúvatar’s concepts and are referred to in The Silmarillion as The First Children of Ilúvatar and the Second Children of Ilúvatar, respectively, while the Dwarves would be the Adopted Children.